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A Brief Introduction About Biobank

Biobanks are the primary source of high-quality human biological samples. Biobanks are often referred to as biorepositories, but there is a fine distinction between the two. Biological storage includes the collection of plants, animals, and other non-human specimens, whereas biobanks mainly store human biological samples. Biobanking is the collection, storage, and distribution of human biological samples and related data for clinical studies.

What is a Biobank?

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The two main components of biobanking are:

  • Handling of biological materials
  • Database management system

Types of samples collected in the biobank:

There is a list of human samples collected and stored in the biobank, including whole blood, plasma, serum, erythrocytes, white blood cells, DNA, RNA, proteins, cell lines, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, bone, bone marrow cells, etc.

Types of biobank

A population-based biobank:

It is a collection of human DNA samples that collects, analyzes, and reserves phenotypic and genetic data about a representative sample of the source. Population biobanks have been heavily involved in international efforts to harmonize data and samples. 

Disease-oriented biobank:

It is also known as a clinical biobank. They collect biological samples from patients, with which genetic and non-genetic factors of the disease are also examined. Network banking and rare disease biobanking are the two main areas of disease-oriented biobanking.

Biobank Operation:

Biobanking mainly consists of the following four standard operations:

  • Collection
  • Processing
  • Storage
  • Distribution

The purpose of the biobank:

The goal of the human biobank is to develop a central resource to support research in a better understanding of human disease. Some of the objectives of the biobank are as follows:

  • Create sample collections from multiple sources
  • Carry out a study on the collected sample
  • Facilitate knowledge transfer
  • Ensure sample quality, quantity, and representativeness